History of the Apostle Saint James the Greater
Quick facts about St James the Apostle:
- Patron saint of Pilgrims and Spain
- Memorial Day / Feast Day is July 25th
- Named by Jesus as one of the Sons of Thunder
- St James the Greater died in AD 44
- He was executed by beheading
Who or what is a patron saint and what is St James the Greater the patron saint of?
A patron saint is considered to be a defender of a specific group of people or of a nation. There’s a patron saint for virtually every cause, profession or special interest. Prayers are considered more likely to be answered by asking a patron saint for intercession on their behalf. Patron saints are not just specific to Roman Catholicism, but are also particular to Eastern Orthodoxy, Anglicanism and some branches of Islam. St James the Greater is the patron saint of pilgrims and Spain.
The Story of St James the Greater
St James the Greater, was one of the disciples of Jesus, and was prominent amongst the 12 apostles. He was the son of Zebedee and was known as the ‘Greater’ as he was taller than the other apostle named James. James the Greater is thought to be a cousin of Jesus, by the sister of the Virgin Mary, and the brother of St Jude Thaddeus. He worked as a fisherman with his brother John, his father Zebedee and his partner Simon. John and James were followers of John the Baptist and then Jesus. James, along with his brother John, left his life as a fisherman when Jesus called him to be a fisher of men. He followed Jesus as one of his disciples until Jesus was crucified. James the Greater was chosen by Jesus to be one of the 12 apostles and was given the mission to spread the gospel.
He made a pilgrimage to the Iberian Peninsula to spread the word of Jesus and when he returned to Judea, he was beheaded by King Herod Agrippa I in the year 44AD. This is detailed in the Bible in Acts 12 of the New Testament. “King Herod extended his hands to harm certain ones from the church. 2 He killed James the brother of John with the sword. 3 Seeing that it pleased the Jews, he proceeded further to arrest Peter also” (Act 12 Modern English Version).
The remains, or relics, of St James the Greater were then transported by his followers to the Iberian Peninsula (today’s Galicia in Spain) and are said to be buried in Santiago de Compostela in Galicia, which is why St James the Greater is the patron saint of Spain. A legend surrounding how James was transported back to the Iberian Peninsula goes as such. His body, along with his followers, sailed to the Iberian Peninsula on a rudderless ship with no sail. Landing on the northwest coast of the peninsula they proceeded up the River Ulla to land at Iria Flavia, modern day Padron. The Celtic Queen Lupia ruled these lands, and when asked by James’ followers if they could bury his body she refused and sent troops after them. While chasing the followers of James with his body across a bridge it collapsed, killing her troops. Queen Lupia then converted to Christianity and provided an ox and cart for the followers of James to transport the body. Unsure of where to have James’ last resting places his followers prayed on this and decided to let the ox continue until it choose a place to rest. After pausing at a stream the ox finally came to rest under an oak tree at the top of a hill and it’s here that the Cathedral of Santiago stands today.
The Legend of St James the Greater
St James, or according to the Spanish form of his name, St lago, is also the great military patron of Spain. His mission to defend the Christian Church against invaders was however reserved until after his death. During the celebrated battle of Clavijo, he suddenly appeared on a milk-white charger, waving aloft a white standard, and leading the Christians to victory. This manifestation was in response to the soldiers’ invocation of his name, “Sant lago!” as the battle-cry of that day. Hence, the name of the ancient city (Santiago) which contains the cathedral founded in his honour.
Death of St James the Greater
There are two categories of saints – martyrs and confessors. A Christian martyr is regarded as one who is put to death for his Christian faith or convictions. Confessors are people who died natural deaths. St James the Greater died in AD 44 when he was beheaded by Herod, making him a martyr. St James is also widely recognised as the first apostle to be martyred.
Why is St James the Greater the patron of Pilgrims and Spain?
St James the Greater is universally regarded as the patron of pilgrims because after establishing the Christian religion in the Iberian Peninsula, modern Galicia, he returned to Judaea on a pilgrimage and was beheaded. The scallop shell is the recognized symbol of all pilgrims on the Camino, as it’s found on the shores of Galicia. When returning to their own countries, pilgrims displayed the scallop shell in their hats to show that they had carried out their pious intentions.
St James became the patron saint of Spain as this is where his remains are believed to be buried. St James is also believed to have helped the Christians defeat the Moors in Spain – yet another reason he’s their patron saint.
How St James the Greater is represented in Christian Art
It’s helpful to be able to recognise St James the Greater in paintings, stained glass windows, illuminated manuscripts, architecture and other forms of Christian art. The artistic representations reflect the life or death of saints, or an aspect of life with which the person is most closely associated. St James the Greater is represented in Christian Art in the garb of a pilgrim, with staff, gourd, and scallop shell. St James is often also depicted riding a white horse into battle.
Feast Day of St James the Greater
The Feast Day of St James the Greater is July 25th.
The origin of Feast Days
Most saints have specially designated feast days that are associated with a specific day of the year. The feast days first arose from the very early Christian custom of the annual commemoration of martyrs on the dates of their deaths at the same time celebrating their birth into heaven.
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